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高纤维饮食和我们的健康

食物纤维对我们的健康很有益处。大多数人都知道食物纤维能帮助我们防止或减轻便秘。其实食物纤维对我们身体健康还有更多的好处,如降低患糖尿病,心脏病和肥胖症的风险等。

食物纤维的种类

食物纤维可分为两种。

1 不溶性食物纤维
不溶性食物纤维不溶于水。它促进定时排便,并有助于防止便秘。它也有助于结肠运动,把有毒废物更快地排出体外,防止结肠癌。
含高的不溶性食物纤维的食品包括蔬菜,如深色绿叶蔬菜类,水果和蔬菜皮,坚果和种子,麦麸和全谷物等。

2 可溶性食物纤维
可溶性食物纤维溶解于水。它可以帮助调节血糖,降低糖尿病和心脏病的患病率,并能降低总胆固醇和低密度脂蛋白(坏胆固醇)的水平。
含高的可溶性纤维的食品包括豆类,燕麦,蔬菜和水果等。

不同的植物性食物纤维种类和数量的含量不同。健康均衡的饮食,需要多吃多种含高食物纤维的食品。

高食物纤维饮食的益处

高食物纤维饮食给我们的健康带来许多好处。

改善肠道运动和健康
高食物纤维饮食帮助正常排便, 从而有助于防治便秘和痔疮。

有助于减肥或保持体重
当我们吃的食物纤维到达胃后,它吸收大量的液体而彭大,使我们有饱腹感。另外,含高食物纤维的食物,一般需要更多的咀嚼时间,防止吃得过多。此外,食物纤维可部分或完全不能消化,和精制碳水化合物相比热量很低。因此,食物纤维可以帮助我们减少或维持体重。

有助于控制血糖水平
食物纤维,特别是可溶性食物纤维,可以减缓糖的吸收,这能帮助糖尿病患者改善血糖水平。

降低血液中胆固醇含量
含高食物纤维的食物通常含有较低的脂肪含量,尤其是饱和脂肪酸和胆固醇。可溶性食物纤维可帮助降低低密度脂蛋白,(“坏”胆固醇水平)降低血总胆固醇水平。医学研究表明,在饮食中增加纤维可降低血压和炎症,这也对心脏健康有益。

我们需要多少食物纤维?

美国国家癌症研究所和糖尿病协会推荐每天吃高纤维食物。他们建议的每日膳食纤维摄入量为20 - 35克。 大约是5至9份水果,蔬菜和全谷物食品。

一份食物纤维的例子。

例1:水果/蔬菜:
•1杯生蔬菜沙拉
•½杯煮熟的蔬菜
•1 / 2杯豆类
•1个中等大小的水果(橙,香蕉,梨,苹果)
•1 / 4杯干果
•100%的水果或蔬菜汁一小杯(3 / 4杯或6盎司)

例2:全谷物:
•1 / 2杯煮熟的米饭或面食
•1杯麦片
•1片面包

最好的含高食物纤维的食品

全谷物食品
水果
蔬菜
豆类
坚果和种子

一般来说含高的食物纤维的自然食品比纤维补充药剂好。如果您需要服用纤维补充药剂的话,一定建议您看医生。

English sample translation: High Fiber Diet and Our Health

Dietary fiber offers many health benefits. Most of us know its ability to prevent or relieve constipation. Actually fiber can provide other health benefits as well, such as lowering our risk of diabetes, heart disease and obesity.

Types of fiber

There are types of fiber.

Insoluble fiber
Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water . It promotes regular bowel movements and helps prevent constipation. It also helps to prevent colon cancer by assisting the movement of toxic waste through the colon faster to detoxify the body.
Food sources for insoluble fiber include vegetables, good examples are dark green leafy vegetables, fruit and vegetable skins, nuts and seeds, wheat bran and whole grains.

Soluble fiber
Soluble fiber dissolves in water. It can help regulate blood sugar, reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease and lower total cholesterol and LDL (the bad cholesterol ).
Food sources for soluble fiber include dried beans and peas, oats, oat bran, vegetables and fruits.

The amount of each type of fiber varies in different plant foods. In order to have a healthy balanced diet, eat a wide variety of high-fiber foods.

Benefits of a high-fiber diet

A high-fiber diet has many benefits on our health.

Improve bowel movements and health
A high-fiber diet can lower our risk of developing constipation and/ or hemorrhoids by helps normal bowel movements.

Helps reduce or maintain weight
When the fiber we eat gets to our stomach, it absorbs a lot of the liquid and expands, making us feel more full on less food. In addition, dietary fiber can be partly digestible or completely indigestible, which is different with refined carbohydrates. Therefore, fiber helps us reduce or maintain weight. In addition, high-fiber foods generally require more chewing time, which gives our body time to register when we are no longer hungry, so we are less likely to overeat. Also, a high-fiber diet tends to be less "energy dense," which means they have fewer calories for the same volume of food. Fiber is considered as good aids in weight loss.

Helps control blood sugar levels
Fiber, particularly soluble fiber, can slow the absorption of sugar, which for people with diabetes can help improve blood sugar levels. A diet that includes insoluble fiber has been associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

Lowers blood cholesterol levels
High fiber foods generally contain low contents of fat, especially saturated fatty acids, and cholesterol. Soluble fiber can help lower total blood cholesterol levels by lowering low-density lipoprotein, or "bad," cholesterol levels. Epidemiologic studies have shown that increased fiber in the diet can reduce blood pressure and inflammation, which is also protective to heart health.

How much do we need?

For good health, the National Cancer Institute and American Diabetes Association recommend routine consumption of high fiber foods. They suggest daily dietary fiber intake of 20 – 35 g per day. 5 to 9 servings of fruits and vegetables are recommended.

The following are examples of one dietary fiber serving.
Example 1: One fruit /vegetables fiber serving:
• 1 cup of raw salad greens
• ½ cup of cooked vegetables
• 1/2 cup of beans or peas
• a medium-size piece of fruit (orange, banana, pear, apple)
• 1/4 cup of dried fruit
• a small glass (3/4 cup or 6 oz) of 100% fruit or vegetable juice

Example 2: One whole grain fiber serving :
• 1/2 cup cooked rice or pasta
• 1 cup cereal
• 1 slice bread
• 1 small muffin (1 ounce)

Best fiber choices

• whole-grain foods
• Fruits
• Vegetables
• legumes
• Nuts and seeds

Nature whole foods rather than fiber supplements are generally better choice. Always check with your doctor if you feel you need to take fiber supplements for health purpose.

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